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Ongoing Doctoral Projects

 

Towards a climate-adapted building design in a semi-arid climate – The effects of different design features on indoor climate in residential buildings in Sacaba Valley, Cochabamba, Bolivia

Fabricio Montaño

Research Problem

In residential buildings is likely to have thermal discomfort due the diurnal temperature variation. The interaction of the building design features and indoor climate have not been properly defined yet. Therefore, there is a need to look at different building typologies and provide knowledge to architects in order to achieve better indoor thermal comfort. The impact of the study will be to reduce the temperature variation on indoor environment of the residential buildings in Sacaba and to communicate this knowledge about current thermal behavior to housing occupants, local architects and authorities and ways for improvement will also increase. 

Study Aim, research questions

The aim of my research is to develop better understanding of the impacts of different residential building typologies in the indoor thermal comfort limits.

In order to achieve the aim of the study, the following questions should be answered:

1.      What are the predominant residential building typologies in relation to thermal conditions in Sacaba?

2.      What are the thermal conditions in residential building typologies?

3.      How do the people of Sacaba perceive the indoor thermal environment?

4.      How can residential building design be improve as regards thermal performance?

Methodology

Research strategy methods and tools:

1.      Identification of residential buildings typologies will be conducted. Quantitative and qualitative approach.  Field study methods, observation and documentation.

2.      Indoor climate measurements of the building typologies selected will be performed. Quantitative approach, meteorological equipment and structured interview forms.

3.      Surveys of thermal perception and indoor climate measurements. Quantitative approach, questionnaires with the use of SPSS and Excel and meteorological equipment for indoor climate assessment.

4.      Simulation study, quantitative approach. Parametric modelling method with the use of DEROB-LTH program

Expected results

-lncreased knowledge to architects and engineers, having a better understanding about housing thermal conditions of predominant residential building typologies,  identifying which housing materials reduce illness and contributes with higher life expectancy to the people and indoor climate housing improvement.

-Increased knowledge of the effects of the residential building design, indoor thermal comfort, local thermal comfort limits and the methodology for assessment.

 

Household energy use linked to people’s life-styles (Boendets energianvändning kopplad till människors livsstilar)

Laura Liuke

Bakgrund

Enligt EU:s energieffektiviserings- och energitjänstedirektiv från 2006 ska Sverige till år 2020 genomföra energieffektiviseringar som minskar energianvändningen med 20 procent jämfört med år 2008.

Studier publicerade av bl.a. Energimyndigheten (ER 2007:19) och Carlsson-Kanyama m.fl. (FOI-rapport 1900-SE, 2005;) har visat att de boendes beteende har stor inverkan på hushållens energianvändning i Sverige. Enligt en studie av Carlsson-Kanyama m.fl. (FOI-rapport 1900-SE, 2005) har den kunskap som finns om energibeteende hos människor bara till liten del använts vid utformningen av kampanjer och styrmedel. En studie av Langevin m.fl. (Applied Energy 102, 2013, 1358–1370) påvisar att beteendemönster kan förklara ca 30 % av variationen i energianvändningen för uppvärmning och att förhållandevis enkla beteendeändringar kan leda till energibesparingar på 10-20 %.

Studier av hushållens energianvändning har visat stora skillnader i hushållens beteende i olika länder och mellan olika inkomstgrupper. I sin artikel (Energy Policy 49, 2012, 616-628) jämför Mills och Schleich energistatistik från 11 olika europeiska länder och påvisar betydande skillnader mellan olika länder i energibeteende. Generellt för alla är dock att hushåll med barn tenderar åta sig energibesparande åtgärder av miljöskäl medan hushåll med huvudsakligen äldre medlemmar tenderar spara energi av ekonomiska skäl. Utbildningsnivån påverkar tänkandet kring energin men det finns stora skillnader på hur stor påverkan är i olika länder och hur det syns i energianvändandet.

I en svensk studie av Vassileva, Wallin och Dahlqvist (Applied Energy 90, 2012, 182-188) studerar författarna variationerna i hushållens elförbrukning under en lång tid i två hyreshus byggda 2001. Studien visar stora variationer i elförbrukningen i dessa tekniskt identiska hus vilket enligt författarna understryker behovet av att studera hushållens energibeteende som tillsammans med inkomstnivån är avgörande för energianvändningsnivån. De identifierar behovet av att framtida energirådgivning bygger på hushållens individuella energibeteende och på förståelsen av de mönster och motiv som finns bakom beteendet.

Det faktum att ovannämnda (och andra) studier visat på en stark koppling mellan socioekonomisk bakgrund och energibeteende motiverar en djupare studie över kopplingen mellan etnisk-kulturell bakgrund och energibeteende i svenska bostäder.

Syfte

Denna studie syftar till att undersöka förhållandet mellan brukarnas beteende och energianvändningen i flerbostadshus. Studien bygger på hypotesen att ökad kunskap kan leda till lägre energianvändning genom att ett mer energieffektivt beteende anammas tack vare informationskampanjer och rådgivning som hushåll med olika livsstilar upplever relevanta och meningsfulla.

Studien har följande specifika delmål:

• Förstå kopplingen mellan beteende och energianvändning för grupper med olika kulturell och social bakgrund.

• Kartlägga och kvantifiera hur mycket energi som används i hushållen och hur denna är fördelad på olika ändamål (såsom varmvatten, uppvärmning, ventilation, belysning, matlagning, apparater etc.) samt hur energianvändningen varierar mellan de olika hushållen i studien och hur energianvändningen relaterar till olika livsstilar.

• Identifiera faktorer relaterade till energibeteende som kan användas för mer riktade informationskampanjer och energirådgivning som upplevs relevant och meningsfull bland hushåll med olika livsstilar.

Genomförande

För att kartlägga energianvändningen används dels tillgänglig statistik från fastighetsbolag dels beteendestudier av de boende. Komplexiteten när det gäller variationen i de boendes bakgrund gör att såväl kvantitativa som kvalitativa metoder kommer att behöva användas. Enkäter kan användas i större utsträckning i områden med hög läskunnighet och goda språkkunskaper i svenska, medan i områden med mer bristfälliga kunskaper i svenska ligger fokus på intervjuer (med hjälp av tolkar) som kompletteras med beteendestudier när det gäller energianvändning i hushållen. Studien begränsas till hyresrätter i flerbostadshus i Malmö och hur energianvändningen i dessa är relaterade till beteende. Härvid studeras uppvärmning, varmvatten samt hushållsel inkl. el till belysning, matlagning, vitvaror och övriga hushållsapparater. Projektgruppen är tvärvetenskaplig och består av forskare vid avdelningarna Boende och bostadsutveckling, Miljöpsykologi och Energi- och byggnadsdesign vid institutionen för Arkitektur och byggd miljö, LTH. Projektet kommer att genomföras i nära samarbete med en referensgrupp bestående av representanter för bostadsbolag, fastighetsförvaltare och hyresgäster.

Metod

Studien inleds med en orientering i kvantitativa och kvalitativa forskningsmetoder både vad det gäller tekniska och beteendevetenskapliga traditioner genom doktorandkurser och litteraturstudier. På basis av orienteringen utvecklas en metod som testas i en pilotstudie som genomförs i Malmö. Efter analyser av resultaten från pilotstudien planeras och genomförs den huvudsakliga fältstudien som förväntas innefatta enkätstudier, djupintervjuer samt mätning av energiförbrukning. Analyser av resultaten av de olika komponenterna i fältstudien, tillsammans med tillgänglig statistik, utgör huvuddelen av data för studien. Resultaten av analysen i olika stadier av studien presenteras i vetenskapliga artiklar som tillsammans med en kappa utgör licentiatavhandlingen.

 

Informal settlements and sustainable urban planning for developing countries

Maria Isabel Rasmussen

Background

Urbanization has been very strong since the middle of 1900s and from 2007, 50% of the population in the world became urban. Today almost one third of this urban population, around 1 billion, are living in areas classified as slum areas with substandard housing and lack of land rights. In some cases more than 50% of the growth of cities in developing countries has been implemented by the informal sector.

Slum areas often give a chaotic impression and may seem to have arisen completely unplanned. However, evidence suggests that the formation of many slum areas, in fact, is the result of organized and planned process characterized by precision and discipline.

The formal and informal settlements have a parallel coexistence without interacting, and goverments and informal planners rarely know each other's work. The knowledge gained by this study, could guide a sustainable urban development for developing countries.

Purpose and questions

The overall study aims to investigate:

• How does the process of informal settlement planning work and what are the consequences for land use.

More specificall y the research will try to answer:

• How is informal settlement development carried out in terms of selection of appropriate land, land subdivision, housing development and provision of infrastructure and services in the informal settlements?

• How are the physical characteristics and life quality of the human settlement?

• How is the community organized with regard to decision making at settlement level and how is this reflected in the physical planning?

Methodology

The study is based largely on field studies in the infonnal  settlements in 2 developing cities: Guayaquil and Dares Salaam. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods will be used.

Urban planning, community organization and land use will be studied by observations, questionnaires and limited number of semi structured interviews with key persons such as residents of informal settlements, land dealers, community leaders, municipal planners, researchers and other professionals involved.

These areas will be documented through photography, measurements and geographic information systems in order to establish morphological maps.

An analysis and literature review will be done parallel to field studies.

 

Urban Fabric and Outdoor Thermal Comfort in Warm Humid Climate: The Case of Dar es Salaam’s Informal Settlements

Modest Maurus Baruti

Research Problem

Informal settlements are facing challenges of increasingly thermal discomfort condition due to urban warming. Rose et al, (2011) noted that in developing countries, outdoor discomfort conditions affect largely the urban poor who spend much of their time outdoors. Also, it is established that informal urban fabric characterize 40% to 50% of cities in developing countries and provides accommodation to 32%-85% of the population (Kombe, 2005). It can be postulated that lack of this control on the formation of urban fabric in informal settlements to great extent jeopardizes the thermal comfort of users.

In informal settlements social, economic and environmental challenges facing informal urban fabric areas have occupied research community for decades; however, thermal comfort issues have not been research agenda in these areas. This calls for research to investigate on the effect of informal urban fabric on outdoor microclimate and consequently outdoor thermal comfort. Also, this research need to explore people’s perception of outdoor thermal comfort; tacit knowledge on urbanites coping strategies with outdoor thermal conditions;   and micrometeorological thermal comfort limits in this context. This study can result into generation of knowledge on the link between informal urban fabric and outdoor thermal comfort in warm-humid city of Dar es Salaam which is the typical example of cities in developing countries.

Research aim and Questions

The main objective of this research is to explore relationship between urban fabric and outdoor thermal comfort in informal settlements and its influence on the ways which urbanite’s cope with thermal discomfort as well urbanites perceptions on the same.

a)     How does informal urban fabric in hot humid climate affect outdoor microclimate?

b)     What is urbanites perception of outdoor thermal comfort in informal settlements of warm humid climates? Is there coping strategies?

c)      What is urbanites sensation and preference of outdoor microclimate in informal settlements of warm humid climates? Is there coping strategies?

d)     Which measures can influence outdoor thermal comfort in informal urban fabric?

Methodology

a) Physical Measurements

Physical measurements of physical quantities of thermal comfort; air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air velocity, and relative humidity in two sites with different micro-climates  have been conducted. Sites selection have considered H/W ratio of streets canyons, orientation, surface materials properties vegetation but they differ in proximity to the coast.

b) Structured Interviews and Questionnaires

This will be used to get peoples’ perception of outdoors thermal comfort in informal urban areas in selected sites were measurements are taken. Correlation between people’s perception of outdoor thermal comfort and physical measurements of Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) will be done.

c) Simulations

Selected section of the urban fabric will be simulated to learn the influence of various urban design options on the outdoor thermal comfort. Later on, the same urban fabric section will be used to develop different models to test different urban design options and how they perform in terms of outdoor thermal comfort.

Expected Results

This research will inform urban designers on the design factors and considerations on the improvement of informal urban fabric for better outdoor thermal comfort and contribute on the climate-sensitive urban design.

 

Understanding the transformation of the residents living in large scale housing areas in Hanoi. A residential satisfaction approach – The Case of Hanoi (Vietnam)

Tuan Anh Chu

Background

The Vietnamese strategic housing development to 2020 and a vision towards 2030 is committed to sustainability and calls for a set of policies to support sustainable housing. Although it is recognized that sustainable housing policies in isolation will not overcome the urban problems that we face, it is suggested that without such policies, there is no hope at all to find a solution. The urban population in Vietnam barely reaches 30%, leaving a great deal of room for future development.

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how a better understanding of the needs and desires of the residents can help improve housing policy.

The significance and application of this research does not lie in advanced technologies or multi-billion dollar overhaul projects but in creating solutions for financial feasibility and support for a participatory approach rooted in the very people that inhabit residences. Housing, after all, is supposed to meet human’s needs for shelter and therefore, inducing changes in housing practices through habitants is a sustainable practice itself.

The study will collect data from residents about their needs and desires. Based on an analysis of this data, I hope to come up with recommendations for improvements housing policy.

Research questions 

In order to achieve the aim of the study, the following questions should be answered:

-What are the needs, desires and adaptation of the residents living in large scale housing areas in Hanoi?

-What housing policies can respond to those needs and desires?

Methodology

This research is of exploratory nature and therefore will use qualitative method to answer the how and why questions.

-This will be done by studying one selected residential area in Hanoi.

-The study intends to use multiple data and evidence-gathering techniques including: case study analysis, one-on-one interviews with policy makers, experts and community leaders, survey and observations of current residents.

-Data will be collected and analyzed in two phases such that the first phase will serve as inputs to refine and define the focused matters in the second phase.

-An analysis and literature review will prepare for field studies.

Expected results of the research

-Better understanding about the needs, desires and adaptation of the residents living in large scale housing areas in Hanoi during the last 20 years.

-The sustainable benefit to urban housing development through housing policies in Hanoi is expected, and similar approach can be taken to bring about similar results in other urban areas.

 

 

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